The political philosophies in today's world pretty much revolve around whether one believes that rights come from God according to eternal principles of freedom, or from man governing over other men at their whims and discretion by political position or dominance.
What is the difference? There are really only two kinds of governments. Self governance and government by rulers. Self governance implies that people will have a voice and appoint representatives with some limited authority to look after the affairs of a nation and create just laws enforced with fairness and equality.
Rule by kings or monarchs or oligarchies is the rule of men by whim or dictate over their subjects. Laws are created at will and none exist that can't be changed by the ruler or ruling class by merely speaking or declaring it so. In the first instance citizens own their property. In the second the ruler owns all property.
Through the Declaration of Independence, the United States went through the liberating strife of leaving a monarch to find themselves without a government strong enough to protect them and unite them sufficiently to endure.
They existed as states or settlements with local governments. Each state pursuing the desires of its populace. The did not want to disband the concept of indivitual states. They met together to form a new nation to mutually benefit. The first ever nation founded in the principles of liberty and a guiding constitution for implementing it.